خاور نزدیک از ۱۰۰۰۰ سال پیش

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کتاب The Near East: 10,000 Years of History به انتشار سال ۱۹۶۸ گردآوری‌های ایشان در خصوص نواحی خاور نزدیک شامل منطقه ایران، کشورهای عربی و آفریقایی است. جدول زیر، بخشی از این کتاب است که به صورت خلاصه فهرست زمانی این منطقه را نشان می‌دهد. البته با توجه به زمان نگارش این کتاب در ۱۱ خرداد ۱۳۴۷ یعنی حدود ۵۳ سال پیش و همچنین تبار یهودی آسیموف چینش وقایع بعد از جنگ جهانی دوم، روند خاص خود را دارد.

کتاب تاریخ خاور نزدیک
The Near East; 10,000 Years of History

خاور نزدیک از ۱۰۰۰۰ سال پیش

پیش از میلادB.C.
Beginnings of agriculture northeast of Tigris River8500
Agriculture along the upper Tigris and Euphrates Rivers5000
Canal system begins along the lower Euphrates4500
Sumerians enter lower Mesopotamia4000
Invention of writing by Sumerians3100
Akkadians enter Mesopotamia; Bronze comes into use3000
The Great Flood2800
Gilgamesh of Uruk2700
Eannatum of Lagash; sets up “Stele of the Vultures”2550
Urukagina of Lagash attempts reforms and fails2415
Lugalzaggesi of Umma unifies Sumeria2400
Sargon of Agade defeats Lugalzaggesi; sets up Akkadian Empire2370
Naram-Sin; Akkadian Empire at peak2290
Guti take Agade; destroy Akkadian Empire2215
Gudea of Lagash2150
Ur-Nammu of Ur; oldest surviving law-code2100
Elam conquers Ur and ends last period of Sumerian domination; Amorites infiltrate Mesopotamia and take Babylon; nomads of the steppe tame the horse2000
Abraham leaves Ur1950
Sumerian language and sense of nationality peter out1900
Amorites take Asshur1850
Shamshi-Adad I of Assyria; first Assyrian conqueror1814
Horse-and-chariot comes into use; Hurrian tribes begin to raid Middle-Eastern civilizations1800
Hammurabi of Babylon1792
Death of Hammurabi after bringing Amorite Empire to peak of power and initiating greatness of Babylon1750
Hittite Empire established in eastern Asia Minor; Kassites invade Mesopotamia1700
Kassites take Babylon1595
Phoenicians invent alphabet; Indo-European tribes (Medes) settle in mountains north and east of Mesopotamia; other tribes (Aryans) invade India. Kingdom of Mitanni established and dominates Assyria.1500
Thutmose III of Egypt defeats Canaanites at Megiddo; goes on to defeat Mitanni and Hittites1479
Hittites establish new Empire1375
Ashur-uballit wins Assyrian independence of Mitanni1365
Assyria absorbs Mitanni; iron-smelting discovered in Caucasus foothills1300
Shalmaneser I establishes First Assyrian Empire1275
Tukulti-Ninurta I (Nimrod); First Assyrian Empire at peak1245
Invasion of Peoples of the Sea; Hittite Empire destroyed; First Assyrian Empire greatly weakened1200
Elamites take Babylon and carry off law-code of Hammurabi1174
Nebuchadrezzar I of Babylon1124
Tiglath-Pileser I of Assyria; period of Assyrian revival1115
Arameans infiltrate Fertile Crescent1100
Assyria declines again under Aramean pressures1050
David of Judah establishes Israelite Empire over western half of Fertile Crescent1013
Hurrian principalities north of Assyria unite to form kingdom of Urartu1000
Solomon of Israel973
Chaldeans infiltrate Mesopotamia950
Death of Solomon; Israelite Empire breaks up933
Medes develop large breeds of horses capable of carrying armed warrior900
Tukulti-Ninurta II of Assyria; Assyrian army begins to make use of iron and of siege machinery; Second Assyrian Empire889
Ashurnasirpal II of Assyria; establishes Calah as capital; conducts wars of terror and cruelty; Second Assyrian Empire at peak883
Shalmaneser III of Assyria859
Israel and Syria unite to defeat Assyria at Karkar854
Sammu-rammat of Assyria (Semiramis); Assyria in decline again810
Urartu at its peak under Argistis I; Scythians invade regions north of Black Sea and begin to drive Cimmerians through the Caucasus750
Tiglath-Pileser III of Assyria; establishes Third Assyrian Empire745
Tiglath-Pileser III establishes direct rule over Babylon729
Shalmaneser V of Assyria727
Sargon II of Assyria; takes Samaria and destroys kingdom of Israel722
Sennacherib of Assyria; establishes Nineveh as capital705
Sennacherib lays siege to Jerusalem but fails to take it701
Sennacherib sacks Babylon689
Esarhaddon of Assyria681
Esarhaddon invades Egypt673
Esarhaddon sacks Memphis in lower Egypt671
Esarhaddon restores Bablon; Ashurbanipal of Assyria669
Ashurbanipal sacks Thebes in Upper Egypt; Third Assyrian Empire at peak661
Ashurbanipal in final victory over Cimmerians; Lydian kingdom established in western Asia Minor652
Ashurbanipal defeats his brother Shamash-shum-ukin (Sardanapalus) in Babylon648
Ashurbanipal takes and destroys Susa; Elamite history comes to end639
Death of Ashurbanipal; Nabopolassar takes control of Babylon; Cyaxares rules over united Media625
Nabopolassar takes and destroys Nineveh; establishes Chaldean Empire612
Necho of Egypt defeats and kills Josiah of Judah at Megiddo608
Nebuchadrezzar II of Chaldea defeats Necho and last Assyrian army; Assyria and Urartu disappear from history605
Nebuchadrezzar II takes and destroys Jerusalem; carries Jews into Babylonian exile587
Nebuchadrezzar II lays siege to Tyre; Chaldean Empire at peak585
Zarathustra establishes Zoroastrian religion in Media575
Nebuchadrezzar II forced to raise siege of Tyre572
Death of Nebuchadrezzar II562
Cyrus II of Persian principality of Anshan declares it independent of Media559
Cyrus II takes Ecbatana, Median capital; Median Empire comes to end and Persian Empire takes its place550
Cyrus II defeats Lydia; Lydian kingdom comes to end547
Cyrus II takes Babylon; Chaldean Empire comes to end539
Cyrus II allows Jews to return to Jerusalem538
Cambyses of Persia530
Cambyses takes Egypt525
Darius I of Persia522
Darius I suppresses rebellion in Babylon519
Jewish Temple rebuilt in Jerusalem516
Revolt of Greek cities in Asia Minor crushed by Darius I; Persian Empire at peak499
Athenians defeat Persians at Marathon490
Xerxes I of Persia486
Xerxes I sacks Babylon; final decline of city begins484
Greeks defeat Persians at sea battle of Salamis480
Artaxerxes I of Persia465
Darius II of Persia424
Artaxerxes II of Persia404
Artaxerxes II defeats his younger brother, Cyrus, at Cunaxa401
Ten thousand Greeks under Xenophon, retreating from Cunaxa, reach home safely400
Artaxerxes III of Persia358
Philip II of Macedon unites Greece, plans invasion of Persia338
Philip II assassinated; Alexander III (the Great) succeeds to Macedonian throne; Darius III of Persia336
Alexander the Great invades Persian Empire, defeats Persians at Granicus334
Alexander the Great defeats Persians at Issus333
Alexander the Great defeats Persians at Gaugamela331
Darius III assassinated by his own men; Persian Empire comes to end330
Alexander the Great dies in Babylon323
Seleucus I, one of Alexander’s generals, takes Babylon; founds Seleucid Empire; builds new capital at Seleucia, and Babylon quickly declines to village312
Bactria under Diodotus I and Parthia under Arsaces I establish independence of Seleucid Empire250
Ptolemy III of Egypt occupies Mesopotamia briefly246
Antiochus III of Seleucid Empire temporarily reestablishes control over Parthia and Bactria: Seleucid Empire at peak217
Antiochus III defeated by Romans190
Antiochus IV of Seleucid Empire175
Mithridates I of Parthia wins its final independence; establishes Parthian Empire171
Jews rebel against Antiochus IV under Maccabees168
Mithridates I takes Media from Seleucid Empire150
Mithridates I takes Mesopotamia; Seleucid Empire confined to Syria147
Parthians ambush Seleucid army and take Seleucid king, Demetrius II, prisoner139
Death of Mithridates I138
Parthians establish capital at Ctesiphon; Seleucia remains great and prosperous as Greek city129
Antiochus VII of Seleucid Empire killed in battle against Parthians127
Parthians set up Tigranes as king of Armenia95
Tigranes most powerful monarch in west Asia. Armenia at peak70
Roman general, Pompey, takes Tigranese prisoner66
Pompey annexes Syria and Judea to Rome; Seleucid Empire at end64
Orodes I of Parthia57
Roman army under Crassus defeated by Parthians at Carrhae53
Parthians briefly take Syria and Judea and invade Asia Minor. Parthian Empire at peak40
Roman general, Ventidius, defeats Parthians; eastern provinces restored to Rome38
Augustus, first Roman Emperor, makes compromise peace with Phraates IV of Parthia20
پس از میلادA.D.
Vologesus I of Parthia51
Vologesus I makes compromise peace with Roman general, Corbulo; Armenia as buffer between two powers63
Roman Emperor Trajan conquers Mesopotamia; Roman Empire at peak115
Roman Emperor Hadrian abandons Mesopotamia to Parthia117
Roman general, Avidius Cassius, takes and destroys Seleucia165
Roman Emperor, Septimius Severus, takes Ctesiphon; passes utterly deserted Babylon198
Arabic kingdom of Hira established200
Ardashir takes Ctesiphon, founds new (Sassanid) dynasty; Parthian Empire at end and replaced by Sassanid Persian Empire228
Shapur I of Sassanid Empire; Manichaeism begins to spread240
Roman Emperor, Valerian, taken prisoner at Edessa by Sassanids260
Imprisonment and death of Mani, founder of Manichaeism274
Narsah of Sassanid Empire293
Roman Emperor, Galerius, defeats Narsah297
Hormisdas II of Sassanid Empire; fails as reformer301
Shapur II, ruler of Sassanid Empire at birth309
Shapur II begins long war against Rome337
Roman Emperor, Julian, invades Mesopotamia, lays siege to Ctesiphon361
Julian killed in Mesopotamia363
Yazdegird I of Sassanid Empire; sympathetic to Christianity at first399
Varahran V (Bahram Gor) of Sassanid Empire420
Sassanid Empire gains control over eastern Armenia (Persarmenia)429
Yazdegird II of Sassanid Empire; Christians persecuted439
Firuz of Sassanid Empire457
Firuz defeated and killed by raiding Hephthalite nomads; Anarchy in Sassanid Empire484
Kavadh of Sassanid Empire; stability restored; Christianity in Empire almost entirely Nestorian; Zoroastrianism fights Mazdakite heresy501
Chosroes I of Sassanid Empire; pagan Athenian philosophers flee to his court531
Pagan Athenian philosophers return to Greece549
Chosroes II of Sassanid Empire589
Chosroes II destroys Arabic kingdom of Hira603
Chosroes II takes Jerusalem615
Chosroes II lays siege to Constantinople; Sassanid power at peak617
Roman Emperor, Heraclius, counterattacks622
Heraclius defeats Chosroes II near ruins of Nineveh627
Death of Chosroes II628
Yazdegird III of Sassanid Empire; Mohammed unites tribes of Arabia and dies632
Arabs defeat Sassanids at Kadisiya; take Asian provinces from Roman Empire, shrink its territory to what comes to be called Byzantine Empire637
Arabs defeat Sassanids at Nehavend642
Death of Yazdegird III; end of Sassanid Empire651
Assassination of Ali; establishment of the Omayyad Caliphate; beginning of Shiite sect of Moslems661
Omayyads defeat Shiites at Kerbelah; Omayyad Caliphate at peak680
Arabic siege of Constantinople fails717
Omayyad dynasty overthrown; Abbasid Caliphate established in its place; Ismailism founded750
Abbasids establish capital at Baghdad; Ctesiphon begins its final decay762
Harun al-Rashid as Abbasid Caliph786
Al-Mamun as Abbasid Caliph; Abbasid Caliphate at peak813
Al-Mutasim as Abbasid Caliph; employs Turkish bodyguard833
Al-Mutasim assassinated; Caliphate quickly declines861
Arabic and Persian science at height; Al-Battani greatest astronomer of the era and Al-Razi the greatest physician900
Turks under Ghazni rule over Persia; Firdausi writes Persian national epic1000
Seljuk Turks under Tughril Beg take over Persia1037
Tughril Beg conquers Mesopotamia1055
Alp Arslan as Seljuk Sultan1063
Alp Arslan defeats Byzantine Emperor, Romanus Diogenes, at Manzikert and takes over most of Asia Minor1071
Malik Shah as Seljuk Sultan; Omar Khayyam writes poetry and reforms calendar1073
Malik Shah takes Jerusalem; Seljuk power at peak1076
Ismailis establish Assassin stronghold in mountains1090
Western Europeans begin First Crusade against Moslems1096
Crusaders take Jerusalem1099
Saladin of Egypt and Syria retakes Jerusalem1187
Death of Genghis Khan after conquest of northern half of China and eastern half of Persia1227
Mongol general, Hulagu, invades Mesopotamia and destroys Assassin stronghold1255
Hulagu sacks Baghdad, destroys canal system of Mesopotamia1258
Kublai Khan as Mongol Khan; Mongol Empire at peak1259
Mongols defeated by Mamelukes of Egypt; Mongol Il-Khans in power in Persia1260
Othman becomes leader of a Turkish tribe, called Ottoman Turks after him; begins to spread through Asia Minor1290
Last crusaders driven out of Asia1291
Ghazan as Il-Khan; converted to Islam; Il-Khans at peak1295
Orkhan I as Ottoman ruler1324
Ottoman Turks cross Hellespont to establish first foothold in Europe1345
Bayazid I as Ottoman ruler1389
Ottoman Turks at outskirts of Constantinople1391
Mongol conqueror, Tamerlane, defeats Il-Khans and puts an end to their dynasty1395
Tamerlane takes and sacks Baghdad1401
Tamerlane defeats Ottoman Turks at Ankara; takes Bayazid I prisoner1402
Death of Tamerlane1404
Mohammed II as Ottoman ruler1451
Ottoman Turks take Constantinople; end of Byzantine Empire1453
Ismail I takes Tabriz; founds Safavid dynasty ruling over Persia1501
Portuguese explorer, Albuquerque, lands on island of Ormuz Ottoman1510
Turks defeat Persians at Chaldiran and take over Mesopotamia; Ottoman Turkish Empire at peak1514
Tahmasp I as Persian Shah1524
English trader, Anthony Jenkinson, reaches Persia1561
Abbas I as Persian Shah1587
Abbas I retakes Mesopotamia from Turks; establishes capital at Isfahan; Safavid dynasty at peak1603
Death of Abbas I1629
Ottoman ruler, Murad IV, takes Mesopotamia once more1638
Afghan invaders take and sack Isfahan1722
Abbas III, last Safavid Shah, deposed; Nadir Shah rules Persia1736
Nadir Shah invades India; sacks Delhi1739
Nadir Shah assassinated1747
Tehran becomes Persian capital1796
Bahaism founded1844
German company obtains permission to build railroad through Mesopotamia1892
Great Britain and Russia divide Persia into spheres of influence1907
Great Britain invades Mesopotamia in course of World War I1915
British take Baghdad1917
British control Mesopotamia (Iraq) as a League of Nations mandate1918
Faisal I of Iraq1921
Reza Khan seizes throne of Persia1925
Iraq becomes nominally independent; joins League of Nations1932
Iran becomes official name of Persia1935
British send force into Iraq in course of World War II; occupy Baghdad; British and Russians occupy Iran and force Reza Khan to abdicate1941
Israel becomes independent nation1948
Israel defeats Egypt in Sinai peninsula1956
Revolution in Iraq; King Faisal II killed and a republic established under Kassem1958
Kassem assassinated1963
Israel defeats Arab nations in Six-Day War1967
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